class Parameter

Element of a Signature

class Parameter { }

Represents a parameter, for purpose of introspection.

The usual way to obtain a Parameter object is to create a signature, and call .params on it to obtain a list of the Parameters.

my $sig   = :(Str $x);
my $param = $sig.params[0];
say $param.type;              # OUTPUT: «Str()␤» 

See Signature for more information, and also for an explanation on what most of the concepts related to parameters mean.

Methods

method name

Returns the variable name, which includes all sigils and twigils. This name is used internally when applied to code, or in a declaration determines the name declared. This name is not necessarily usable by a caller – if it is, it will also appear as an alias. Often, the name will chosen descriptively as a form of self-documentation.

If the parameter is anonymous, Nil will be returned.

method sigil

Defined as:

method sigil(Parameter:D: --> Str:D)

Returns a string containing the parameter's sigil, for a looser definition of "sigil" than what is considered part of the variable's name|method name. Still returns a sigil even if the parameter is anonymous.

This "sigil" is actually an introspection used to help determine the normal binding style of a parameter, if it has not been altered through a trait.

Sigil Will bind to Default behavior
$ Scalar Generate new Scalar, use instead of Scalar in argument, if any
@ Positional Bind directly to the argument
@ PositionalBindFailover If binding failed, call argument's .cache method, bind to result
% Associative Bind directly to the argument
& Callable Bind directly to the argument
\ (anything) Bind directly to the argument, keep existing Scalar, if any

Also, | will bind to all remaining arguments and make new Capture if needed.

method type

Returns the nominal type constraint of the parameter.

method coerce_type

Returns the coercion type of the parameter.

method constraints

Returns additional constraints on the parameter (usually as an all-Junction).

method named

Defined as:

method named(Parameter:D: --> Bool:D)

Returns True if it's a named parameter.

my Signature $sig = :(Str $xBool :$is-named);
say $sig.params[0].named;                          # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
say $sig.params[1].named;                          # OUTPUT: «True␤» 

method named_names

Defined as:

method named_names(Parameter:D: --> List:D)

Returns the list of externally usable names/aliases for a named parameter.

method positional

Defined as:

method positional(Parameter:D: --> Bool:D)

Returns True if the parameter is positional.

my Signature $sig = :(Str $xBool :$is-named);
say $sig.params[0].positional;                     # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say $sig.params[1].positional;                     # OUTPUT: «False␤» 

method slurpy

Defined as:

method slurpy(Parameter:D: --> Bool:D)

Returns True for slurpy parameters.

method twigil

Defined as:

method twigil(Parameter:D: --> Str:D)

Returns a string containing the twigil part of the parameter's name.

method optional

Defined as:

method optional(Parameter:D: --> Bool:D)

Returns True for optional parameters.

method raw

Defined as:

method raw(Parameter:D: --> Bool:D)

Returns True for raw parameters.

sub f($a$b is raw, \c{
    my $sig = &?ROUTINE.signature;
    for ^$sig.params.elems {
        say $sig.params[$_].raw;
    }
}
f(17"4711"42); OUTPUT: «FalseTrueTrue␤»

Raw parameters bind either a variable or a value passed to it, with no decontainerization taking place. That means that if a variable was passed to it, you can assign to the parameter. This is different from rw-parameter which can only bind to variables, never to values.

This is the normal behavior for parameters declared with a sigil of '\', which is not really a sigil insofar as it is only used on the parameter.

sub f(\x{
    x = 5;
}
f(my $x);   # works 
f(42);      # dies 
CATCH { default { put .^name''.Str } };
# OUTPUT: «X::Assignment::RO: Cannot modify an immutable Int␤» 

Other parameters may become raw through use of the 'is raw' trait. These still use their sigil in code.

sub f($x is raw{
    $x = 5;
}

method capture

Defined as:

method capture(Parameter:D: --> Bool:D)

Returns True for parameters that capture the rest of the argument list into a single Capture object.

sub how_many_extra_positionals($!|capture{ capture.elems.say }
how_many_extra_positionals(0123);                        # RESULT: «3» 
say &how_many_extra_positionals.signature.params[1].capture;   # OUTPUT: «True␤» 

Like raw parameters, Capture parameters do not force any context on the values bound to them, which is why their sigils are only used in declarations.

method rw

Defined as:

method rw(Parameter:D: --> Bool:D)

Returns True for is rw parameters.

my Signature $sig = :(Str $x is rwBool :$is-named);
say $sig.params[0].rw;                             # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say $sig.params[1].rw;                             # OUTPUT: «False␤» 

method copy

Defined as:

method copy(Parameter:D: --> Bool:D)

Returns True for is copy parameters.

my Signature $sig = :(Str $xBool :$is-named is copy);
say $sig.params[0].copy;                           # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
say $sig.params[1].copy;                           # OUTPUT: «True␤» 

method readonly

Defined as:

method readonly(Parameter:D: --> Bool:D)

Returns True for read-only parameters (the default).

my Signature $sig = :(Str $x is rwBool :$is-named);
say $sig.params[0].readonly;                       # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
say $sig.params[1].readonly;                       # OUTPUT: «True␤» 

method invocant

Defined as:

method invocant(Parameter:D: --> Bool:D)

Returns True if the parameter is the invocant parameter.

method default

Returns a closure that upon invocation returns the default value for this parameter, or Any if no default was provided.

method type_captures

Defined as:

method type_captures(Parameter:D: --> List:D)

Returns a list of variable names of type captures associated with this parameter. Type captures define a type name within the attached code, which is an alias to the type gleaned from the argument during a call.

sub a(::T ::U $x{ T.say }
a(8);                                       # OUTPUT: «(Int)␤» 
say &a.signature.params[0].type_captures;   # OUTPUT: «(T U)␤» 
sub b($x{ $x.^name.say }
a(8);                                       # OUTPUT: «Int␤» 

The type used may change from call to call. Once they are defined, type captures can be used wherever you would use a type, even later in same the signature:

sub c(::T $xT $y$z{ my T $zz = $z };
c(456);          # OK 
c(45"six");      # Fails when assigning to $zz, wants Int not Str 
c("four"5"six"); # Fails when binding $y, wants Str, not Int 

Type captures may be used at the same time as type constraints.

sub d(::T Numeric $xT $y{};
d(45);            # OK 
d(4e05e0);        # OK 
d(4e05);          # Fails when binding $y 
d("four""five");  # Fails when binding $x 

method sub_signature

If the parameter has a sub-signature, returns a Signature object for it. Otherwise returns Any.

Runtime creation of Parameter objects (6.d, 2019.03 and later)

Parameter.new... )

In some situations, specifically when working with the MetaObject Protocol, it makes sense to create Parameter objects programmatically. For this purpose, you can call the new method with the following named parameters:

Optional. The name of the variable, if any. Can be specified in the same way as in a Signature. So it may contain specific additional information, such as a sigil ($, @, % or &), a : prefix to indicate a named parameter, a twigil (. or !) to indicate public / private attribute binding, a postfix ! or ? to indicate an optional / mandatory parameter, and the various combinations of +, *, ** prefixes to indicate slurpiness types and | to indicate a Capture.

Optional. The type of the parameter. Assumes Any if not specified.

Optional. The value of the parameter if the parameter is optional and no argument has been given for that parameter. Assumes not initialization if no argument has been given, which would fall back to the (implicit) type of the parameter.

Optional. Additional constraints to be applied to any argument to match with this parameter. Does not set any additional constraints by default.

Optional. Allows one to set the "is copy" flag on the parameter. Does not set the flag by default.

Optional. Allows one to set the "is raw" flag on the parameter. Does not set the flag by default.

Optional. Allows one to set the "is rw" flag on the parameter. Does not set the flag by default.

Optional. Indicates whether the parameter is a named parameter or not. Should only be specified if the : prefix is not specified in the name and a named parameter is required.

Optional. Indicates whether the parameter is optional or not. Should only be specified if the ? postfix is not specified in the name and an optional parameter is required.

Optional. Indicates whether the parameter is mandatory or not. Should only be specified if the ! postfix is not specified in the name and a mandatory parameter is required.

Optional. Indicates whether the parameter should be considered in multi-dispatch or not. Defaults to True, so one would need to do :!multi-invocant to make the parameter not be considered in multi-dispatch.

Optional. Specifies any Signature that should be applied to the parameter to deconstruct it. By default, no signature is to be applied.

Type Graph

Type relations for Parameter
perl6-type-graph Parameter Parameter Any Any Parameter->Any Mu Mu Any->Mu

Expand above chart