class Signature

class Signature { ... }

A signature is a static description of the parameter list of a code object. That is, it describes what and how many arguments you need to pass to it for invocation.

Passing arguments to a signature binds the arguments the parameters, and (loosely speaking) to the signature.

Signature Literals

Signatures appear in parenthesis after subroutine and method names, on blocks after a -> or <-> arrow, or as a separate term starting with a colon.

sub f($x) { }
#    ^^^^ signature
method x() { }
#       ^^ signature
my $s = sub (*@a) { }
#           ^^^^^ signature
for @list -> $x { }
#            ^^   signature
my $sig = :($a, $b);
#          ^^^^^^^^ signature

Parameter Separators

A signature consists of zero or more parameters, separated by comma. As an exception the first parameter may be followed by a colon instead of a comma to mark the invocant of a method.

:($a, @b, %c)       # comma-separated parameters
:($a: @b, %c)       # first argument is the invocant

Type Constraints

Parameters can optionally have a type constraint (the default is Any). Anonymous parameters are fine too.

:(Int $a, Str $b)   # type constraints
:($, @, %a)         # two anonymous and a "normal" parameter
:(Int, Positional)  # just a type is also fine (two parameters)

In addition to those nominal types, additional constraints can be placed on parameters in the form of code blocks which must return a true value to pass the type check

sub f(Real $x where { $x > 0 }, Real $y where { $y >= $x }) { }

In fact it doesn't need to be a code block, anything on the right of the where-block will be used to smart-match the argument against it. So you can also write

multi fact(Int $ where 0) { 1 }
multi fact(Int $x)        { $x * fact($x - 1) }

The first of those can be shortened to

multi fact(0) { 1 }

i.e., you can use a literal directly as a type and value constraint on an anonymous parameter.

Slurpy Parameters

An array or hash parameter can be marked as slurpy by a leading asterisk, which means they can bind to an arbitrary amount of arguments (zero or more).

:($a, *@b)          # at least one argument, @b is slurpy
:($a, @b)           # two arguments, the second one must be Positional

Positional vs. Named

A parameter can be positional or named. All parameters are positional, except those marked with a leading colon :, and slurpy hash parameters.

:($a)               # a positional parameter
:(:$a)              # a named parameter of name 'a'
:(*@a)              # a slurpy positional parameter
:(*%h)              # a slurpy named parameter

On the caller side, positional arguments are passed in the same order as the parameters were declared.

sub pos($x, $y) { "x=$x y=$y" }
pos(4, 5);                          # x=4 y=5

In the case of named arguments and parameters, only the name is used for mapping arguments to parameters

sub named(:$x, :$y) { "x=$x y=$y" }
named( y => 5, x => 4);             # x=4 y=5

It is possible to have a different name for a named parameter than the variable name:

sub named(:official($private) { }   # parameter name is 'official'

Aliases are also possible that way:

sub paint( :color(:colour($c)) )    # 'color' and 'colour' are both OK
sub paint( :color(:$colour) )       # same API for the caller

Optional and Mandatory Parameters

Named parameters are optional by default, and can be made mandatory with a trailing exclamation mark:

:(:$name!)          # mandatory 'name' named parameter

Positional parameters are mandatory by default, and can be made optional with a default value or a trailing question mark:

:($base = 10)       # optional parameter, default value 10
:(Int $x?)          # optional parameter, default is the Int type object

Named parameters can also have default values.

Default values can depend on previous parameters, and are (at least notionally) computed anew for each call

:($goal, $accuracy = $goal / 100);
:(:$excludes = ['.', '..']);        # a new Array for every call

Parameter Traits and Modifiers

By default, parameters are bound to their argument and marked as read-only. One can change that with traits on the parameter.

The is copy trait causes the argument to be copied, and allows it to be modified inside the routine

sub c($x is copy) {
    $x = Inf if $x ~~ Whatever;
    .say for 1..$x;
}

The is rw trait makes the parameter only bind to a variable (or other writable container)[1]. Assigning to the parameter changes the value of the variable at the caller side

sub swap($x is rw, $y is rw) {
    ($x, $y) = ($y, $x);
}

To bind either to a value or a variable, one can prefix a parameter with a backslash \.

sub f(\$raw) { ... }

Prefixing a parameter with a vertical bar | makes it use up all the remaining positional and named arguments.

Methods

params

method params(Signature:D:) returns Positional

Returns the list of Parameter objects that make up the signature.

arity

method arity(Signature:D:) returns Int:D

Returns the minimal number of positional arguments required to satisfy the signature.

count

method count(Signature:D:) returns Real:D

Returns the maximal number of positional arguments which can be bound to the signature. Returns Inf if there is a slurpy positional parameter.

Full-size type graph image as SVG

Methods supplied by class Any

Signature inherits from class Any, which provides the following methods:

ACCEPTS

multi method ACCEPTS(Any:D: Mu $other)

Returns True if $other === self (i.e. it checks object identity).

any

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an any-Junction from it.

all

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an all-Junction from it.

one

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an one-Junction from it.

none

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an none-Junction from it.

Methods supplied by class Mu

Signature inherits from class Mu, which provides the following methods:

defined

multi sub    defined(Mu) returns Bool:D
multi method defined()   returns Bool:D

Returns False on the type object, and True otherwise.

Bool

multi sub    Bool(Mu) returns Bool:D
multi method Bool()   returns Bool:D

Returns False on the type object, and True otherwise.

Str

multi method Str()   returns Str

Returns a string representation of the invocant, intended to be machine readable.

gist

multi sub    gist(Mu) returns Str
multi method gist()   returns Str

Returns a string representation of the invocant, optimized for fast recognition by humans.

The default gist method in Mu re-dispatches to the perl method, but many built-in classes override it to something more specific.

perl

multi sub    perl(Mu) returns Str
multi method perl()   returns Str

Returns a Perlish representation of the object (i.e., can usually be re-parsed to regenerate the object).

clone

method clone(*%twiddles)

Creates a shallow clone of the invocant. If named arguments are passed to it, their values are used in every place where an attribute name matches the name of a named argument.

new

multi method new(*%attrinit)

Default method for constructing (create + initialize) new objects of a class. This method expects only named arguments which are then used to initialize attributes with accessors of the same name.

Classes may provide their own new method to override this default.

bless

method bless(*%attrinit) returns Mu:D

Lower-level object construction method than new.

Creates a new object of the same type as the invocant, uses the named arguments to initialize attributes, and returns the created object.

You can use this method when writing custom constructors:

class Point {
    has $.x;
    has $.y;
    multi method new($x, $y) {
        self.bless(:$x, :$y);
    }
}
my $p = Point.new(-1, 1);

(Though each time you write a custom constructor, remember that it makes subclassing harder).

CREATE

method CREATE() returns Mu:D

Allocates a new object of the same type as the invocant, without initializing any attributes.

print

multi method print() returns Bool:D

Prints value to $*OUT after stringification using .Str method without newline at end.

say

multi method say() returns Bool:D

Prints value to $*OUT after stringification using .gist method with newline at end.

ACCEPTS

multi method ACCEPTS(Mu:U: $other)

Performs a type check. Returns True if $other conforms to the invocant (which is always a type object or failure).

This is the method that is triggered on smart-matching against type objects, for example in if $var ~~ Int { ... }.

WHICH

multi method WHICH() returns ObjAt:D

Returns an object of type ObjAt which uniquely identifies the object. Value types override this method which makes sure that two equivalent objects return the same return value from WHICH.