class Int

class Int is Cool does Real { ... }

Int objects store integral numbers of arbitrary size. Ints are immutable.

There are two main syntax forms for Int literals

123         # Int in decimal notation
:16<BEEF>   # Int in radix notations

Both forms allow underscores between any two digits which can serve as visual separators, but don't carry any meaning:

5_00000     # five Lakhs
500_000     # five hundred thousand

Methods

chr

multi sub    chr(Int:D ) returns Str:D
multi method chr(Int:D:) returns Str:D

Returns a one-character string, by interpreting the integer as a Unicode codepoint number and converting it the corresponding character.

expmod

multi sub    expmod (Int:D: Int $y, Int $mod) returns Int:D
multi method expmod (Int:D: Int $y, Int $mod) returns Int:D

Returns the given Int raised to the $y power within modulus $mod.

is-prime

multi sub    is-prime (Int:D: Int $tries = 100) returns Bool:D
multi method is-prime (Int:D: Int $tries = 100) returns Bool:D

Returns True if this Int is known to be a prime, or is likely to be a prime based on a probabilistic Miller-Rabin test. $tries is the maximal number of iterations the test is allowed to do.

Returns False if this Int is known not to be a prime.

Operators

infix div

multi sub infix:<div>(Int:D, Int:D) returns Int:D

Does an integer division, rounded down.

Full-size type graph image as SVG

Methods supplied by role Real

Int does role Real, which provides the following methods:

Rat

method Rat(Real:D: Real $epsilon = 1e-6)

Converts the number to a Rat with the precision $epsilon.

rand

sub term:<rand> returns Num:D
method rand(Real:D:) returns Real:D

Returns a pseudo-random number between zero and the number.

The term form returns a pseudo-random Num between 0e0 and 1e0.

sign

method sign(Real:D:)

Returns -1 if the number is negative, 0 if it is zero and 1 otherwise.

round

method round(Real:D: $scale = 1)

Rounds the number to scale $scale. If $scale is 1, rounds to an integer. If scale is 0.1, rounds to one digit after the comma etc.

floor

method floor(Real:D) returns Int:D

Return the largest integer not greater than the number.

ceiling

method ceiling(Real:D) returns Int:D

Returns the smallest integer not less than the number.

truncate

method truncate(Real:D) returns Int:D

Rounds the number towards zero.

base

method base(Real:D: Int:D $base where 2..36) returns Str:D

Converts the number to a string, using $base as base. For $base larger than ten, capital Latin letters are used.

255.base(16)    # 'FF'

Methods supplied by class Any

Int inherits from class Any, which provides the following methods:

ACCEPTS

multi method ACCEPTS(Any:D: Mu $other)

Returns True if $other === self (i.e. it checks object identity).

any

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an any-Junction from it.

all

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an all-Junction from it.

one

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an one-Junction from it.

none

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an none-Junction from it.

Methods supplied by class Mu

Int inherits from class Mu, which provides the following methods:

defined

multi sub    defined(Mu) returns Bool:D
multi method defined()   returns Bool:D

Returns False on the type object, and True otherwise.

Bool

multi sub    Bool(Mu) returns Bool:D
multi method Bool()   returns Bool:D

Returns False on the type object, and True otherwise.

Str

multi method Str()   returns Str

Returns a string representation of the invocant, intended to be machine readable.

gist

multi sub    gist(Mu) returns Str
multi method gist()   returns Str

Returns a string representation of the invocant, optimized for fast recognition by humans.

The default gist method in Mu re-dispatches to the perl method, but many built-in classes override it to something more specific.

perl

multi sub    perl(Mu) returns Str
multi method perl()   returns Str

Returns a Perlish representation of the object (i.e., can usually be re-parsed to regenerate the object).

clone

method clone(*%twiddles)

Creates a shallow clone of the invocant. If named arguments are passed to it, their values are used in every place where an attribute name matches the name of a named argument.

new

multi method new(*%attrinit)

Default method for constructing (create + initialize) new objects of a class. This method expects only named arguments which are then used to initialize attributes with accessors of the same name.

Classes may provide their own new method to override this default.

bless

method bless(*%attrinit) returns Mu:D

Lower-level object construction method than new.

Creates a new object of the same type as the invocant, uses the named arguments to initialize attributes, and returns the created object.

You can use this method when writing custom constructors:

class Point {
    has $.x;
    has $.y;
    multi method new($x, $y) {
        self.bless(:$x, :$y);
    }
}
my $p = Point.new(-1, 1);

(Though each time you write a custom constructor, remember that it makes subclassing harder).

CREATE

method CREATE() returns Mu:D

Allocates a new object of the same type as the invocant, without initializing any attributes.

print

multi method print() returns Bool:D

Prints value to $*OUT after stringification using .Str method without newline at end.

say

multi method say() returns Bool:D

Prints value to $*OUT after stringification using .gist method with newline at end.

ACCEPTS

multi method ACCEPTS(Mu:U: $other)

Performs a type check. Returns True if $other conforms to the invocant (which is always a type object or failure).

This is the method that is triggered on smart-matching against type objects, for example in if $var ~~ Int { ... }.

WHICH

multi method WHICH() returns ObjAt:D

Returns an object of type ObjAt which uniquely identifies the object. Value types override this method which makes sure that two equivalent objects return the same return value from WHICH.