class Int

class Int is Cool does Real { ... }

Int objects store integral numbers of arbitrary size. Ints are immutable.

There are two main syntax forms for Int literals

123         # Int in decimal notation
:16<BEEF>   # Int in radix notations

Both forms allow underscores between any two digits which can serve as visual separators, but don't carry any meaning:

5_00000     # five Lakhs
500_000     # five hundred thousand

Methods

routine chr

multi sub    chr(Int:D ) returns Str:D
multi method chr(Int:D:) returns Str:D

Returns a one-character string, by interpreting the integer as a Unicode codepoint number and converting it the corresponding character.

routine expmod

multi sub    expmod (Int:D: Int $y, Int $mod) returns Int:D
multi method expmod (Int:D: Int $y, Int $mod) returns Int:D

Returns the given Int raised to the $y power within modulus $mod.

routine is-prime

multi sub    is-prime (Int:D: Int $tries = 100) returns Bool:D
multi method is-prime (Int:D: Int $tries = 100) returns Bool:D

Returns True if this Int is known to be a prime, or is likely to be a prime based on a probabilistic Miller-Rabin test. $tries is the maximal number of iterations the test is allowed to do.

Returns False if this Int is known not to be a prime.

Operators

infix div

multi sub infix:<div>(Int:D, Int:D) returns Int:D

Does an integer division, rounded down.

Type graph

Below you should see an imgage showing the type relations for Int. If not, try the PNG version.

perl6-type-graph Int Int Cool Cool Int->Cool Real Real Int->Real Mu Mu Any Any Any->Mu Cool->Any Numeric Numeric Real->Numeric PromiseStatus PromiseStatus PromiseStatus->Int Signal Signal Signal->Int

Methods supplied by role Real

Int does role Real, which provides the following methods:

method Rat

method Rat(Real:D: Real $epsilon = 1e-6)

Converts the number to a Rat with the precision $epsilon.

method sign

method sign(Real:D:)

Returns -1 if the number is negative, 0 if it is zero and 1 otherwise.

method round

method round(Real:D: $scale = 1)

Rounds the number to scale $scale. If $scale is 1, rounds to an integer. If scale is 0.1, rounds to one digit after the comma etc.

method floor

method floor(Real:D) returns Int:D

Return the largest integer not greater than the number.

method ceiling

method ceiling(Real:D) returns Int:D

Returns the smallest integer not less than the number.

method truncate

method truncate(Real:D) returns Int:D

Rounds the number towards zero.

method base

method base(Real:D: Int:D $base where 2..36) returns Str:D

Converts the number to a string, using $base as base. For $base larger than ten, capital Latin letters are used.

255.base(16)    # 'FF'

Methods supplied by class Any

Int inherits from class Any, which provides the following methods:

method ACCEPTS

multi method ACCEPTS(Any:D: Mu $other)

Returns True if $other === self (i.e. it checks object identity).

method any

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an any-Junction from it.

method all

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an all-Junction from it.

method one

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an one-Junction from it.

method none

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an none-Junction from it.

Methods supplied by class Mu

Int inherits from class Mu, which provides the following methods:

method Str

multi method Str()   returns Str

Returns a string representation of the invocant, intended to be machine readable.

method clone

method clone(*%twiddles)

Creates a shallow clone of the invocant. If named arguments are passed to it, their values are used in every place where an attribute name matches the name of a named argument.

method new

multi method new(*%attrinit)

Default method for constructing (create + initialize) new objects of a class. This method expects only named arguments which are then used to initialize attributes with accessors of the same name.

Classes may provide their own new method to override this default.

method bless

method bless(*%attrinit) returns Mu:D

Lower-level object construction method than new.

Creates a new object of the same type as the invocant, uses the named arguments to initialize attributes, and returns the created object.

You can use this method when writing custom constructors:

class Point {
    has $.x;
    has $.y;
    multi method new($x, $y) {
        self.bless(:$x, :$y);
    }
}
my $p = Point.new(-1, 1);

(Though each time you write a custom constructor, remember that it makes subclassing harder).

method CREATE

method CREATE() returns Mu:D

Allocates a new object of the same type as the invocant, without initializing any attributes.

method print

multi method print() returns Bool:D

Prints value to $*OUT after stringification using .Str method without newline at end.

method say

multi method say() returns Bool:D

Prints value to $*OUT after stringification using .gist method with newline at end.

method ACCEPTS

multi method ACCEPTS(Mu:U: $other)

Performs a type check. Returns True if $other conforms to the invocant (which is always a type object or failure).

This is the method that is triggered on smart-matching against type objects, for example in if $var ~~ Int { ... }.

method WHICH

multi method WHICH() returns ObjAt:D

Returns an object of type ObjAt which uniquely identifies the object. Value types override this method which makes sure that two equivalent objects return the same return value from WHICH.