class Exception

class Exception { ... }

All exceptions that are placed into the $! variable (or into $_ in CATCH blocks) inherit from Exception. When you call die or fail with a non-Exception argument, it is wrapped into an X::AdHoc object, which also inherits from Exception.

User-defined exception classes should inherit from Exception too, and define at least a method message.

class X::YourApp::SomeError is Exception {
    method message() {
        "A YourApp-Specific error occurred: out of coffee!";
    }
}

Methods

message

method message(Exception:D:) returns Str:D

This is a stub that must be overwritten by subclasses, and should return the exception message.

Special care should be taken that this method does not produce an exception itself.

backtrace

method backtrace(Exception:D:) returns Backtrace:D

Returns the backtrace associated with the exception. Only makes sense on exceptions that have been thrown at least once.

throw

method throw(Exception:D:)

Throws the exception.

rethrow

method rethrow(Exception:D:)

Rethrows an exception that has already been thrown at least once. This is different from throw in that it preserves the original backtrace.

fail

method fail(Exception:D:)

Same as fail $exception; i.e., it exits the calling Routine and returns the exception wrapped in a Failure object.

gist

multi method gist(Exception:D:)

Returns whatever the exception printer should produce for this exception. The default implementation returns message and backtrace separated by a newline.

Full-size type graph image as SVG

Methods supplied by class Any

Exception inherits from class Any, which provides the following methods:

ACCEPTS

multi method ACCEPTS(Any:D: Mu $other)

Returns True if $other === self (i.e. it checks object identity).

any

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an any-Junction from it.

all

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an all-Junction from it.

one

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an one-Junction from it.

none

Interprets the invocant as a list and creates an none-Junction from it.

Methods supplied by class Mu

Exception inherits from class Mu, which provides the following methods:

defined

multi sub    defined(Mu) returns Bool:D
multi method defined()   returns Bool:D

Returns False on the type object, and True otherwise.

Bool

multi sub    Bool(Mu) returns Bool:D
multi method Bool()   returns Bool:D

Returns False on the type object, and True otherwise.

Str

multi method Str()   returns Str

Returns a string representation of the invocant, intended to be machine readable.

gist

multi sub    gist(Mu) returns Str
multi method gist()   returns Str

Returns a string representation of the invocant, optimized for fast recognition by humans.

The default gist method in Mu re-dispatches to the perl method, but many built-in classes override it to something more specific.

perl

multi sub    perl(Mu) returns Str
multi method perl()   returns Str

Returns a Perlish representation of the object (i.e., can usually be re-parsed to regenerate the object).

clone

method clone(*%twiddles)

Creates a shallow clone of the invocant. If named arguments are passed to it, their values are used in every place where an attribute name matches the name of a named argument.

new

multi method new(*%attrinit)

Default method for constructing (create + initialize) new objects of a class. This method expects only named arguments which are then used to initialize attributes with accessors of the same name.

Classes may provide their own new method to override this default.

bless

method bless(*%attrinit) returns Mu:D

Lower-level object construction method than new.

Creates a new object of the same type as the invocant, uses the named arguments to initialize attributes, and returns the created object.

You can use this method when writing custom constructors:

class Point {
    has $.x;
    has $.y;
    multi method new($x, $y) {
        self.bless(:$x, :$y);
    }
}
my $p = Point.new(-1, 1);

(Though each time you write a custom constructor, remember that it makes subclassing harder).

CREATE

method CREATE() returns Mu:D

Allocates a new object of the same type as the invocant, without initializing any attributes.

print

multi method print() returns Bool:D

Prints value to $*OUT after stringification using .Str method without newline at end.

say

multi method say() returns Bool:D

Prints value to $*OUT after stringification using .gist method with newline at end.

ACCEPTS

multi method ACCEPTS(Mu:U: $other)

Performs a type check. Returns True if $other conforms to the invocant (which is always a type object or failure).

This is the method that is triggered on smart-matching against type objects, for example in if $var ~~ Int { ... }.

WHICH

multi method WHICH() returns ObjAt:D

Returns an object of type ObjAt which uniquely identifies the object. Value types override this method which makes sure that two equivalent objects return the same return value from WHICH.